Our second entrant into the Third Annual UHA/The Metropole Graduate Student Blogging Contest is Matt Kautz, who takes us to a very particular high school in Detroit. The life cycle of this one institution, Kautz shows, offers a peek at the birth of the school-to-prison pipeline.
Detroit’s desegregation case, Milliken v. Bradley, is largely remembered for its national implications because it shielded white suburbs from integration, thus limiting meaningful desegregation throughout the country. While the larger importance of Milliken cannot be understated, the focus on its national legacy has obscured Detroit’s local desegregation story and how white resistance to integration dramatically altered the nature of schooling in the city. White efforts to maintain a segregated school system decreased the district’s funding and led to an expanded police presence in the city’s schools. Moreover, a new code of conduct established during desegregation turned Detroit’s schools into punitive institutions that systematically removed students from classrooms. To understand this transformation, it is helpful to look at the life cycle of Frank Cody High School. As one of the last schools in Detroit to transition from an all-white school, the depth of white resistance at Cody provides insight into how Detroit’s schools became punishers of pupils rather than promoters of promise.
Cody opened on Detroit’s white West Side in 1952 and immediately became an emblem of the district’s inequality. Although schools serving black students in the eastern and central parts of the city were overcrowded and falling into disrepair, the district opened Cody on the West Side, thereby limiting the new state of the art facility and its unique academic opportunities to white students. From the beginning, Cody area residents recognized the privileges of a segregated school system and sought to maintain it. Grassroots mobilization against integrated housing and the racial gerrymandering of the school’s attendance zones preserved the Cody region as an all-white enclave with access to the district’s best resources for over a decade.[i] However, as Detroit’s liberal-labor-black coalition rose to power in the 1960s, the desegregation of schools loomed as a real possibility. Fears of integration spurred Cody area residents to take new steps to maintain their segregated school.
Throughout the 1960s, white voters on Detroit’s East and West Sides used their political power to oppose raising taxes to increase district funds. By 1960, Detroit’s schools were in a precarious financial situation because the school system’s expenditures were rising at the same time declines in property valuations and white flight decreased the district’s revenue. Thus, in 1963, the school board proposed a millage increase to pay for the looming deficit. But, the measure was voted down, largely on the power of white voters in the northwest and northeast areas of the city. Many of the white residents who opposed the tax increase feared the board might use these new funds to facilitate desegregation. As one white voter put it, “if you think we’re going to vote the Board of Education more money to ship a lot more niggers into white schools, you’re nuts.”[ii] In 1966 and 1972, white voters again voted down millage increases out of fears of desegregation. This unwillingness to adequately fund the city’s schools created an untenable fiscal situation that resulted in school facilities falling further into disrepair, decreases in educational resources, and a hollowed-out curriculum for students.[iii]
Although white voters had successfully squeezed the district’s finances as a means to prevent integration, the more racially liberal school board elected in 1965 presented a new challenge when they voted to desegregate the district’s schools in 1970. Under the approved plan, Cody, along with Redford and Denby High Schools, would face the greatest changes in enrollment as the percentage of black students in the school was expected to increase from 3 to 31 percent. Enraged at the prospect of integration, a group of white parents founded the Citizens Committee for Better Education to repeal the desegregation plan and recall the liberal board members. The group quickly secured over 130,000 signatures on a petition to recall the four board members who voted in favor of the plan. When the recall came to a vote, over 80 percent of those in the Cody area voted in favor of it.[iv]
However, after almost twenty years of successfully maintaining a segregated school, Cody area residents would finally have to confront desegregation. Although the city was not issued a court-order until the fall of 1975, changes in the city’s racial makeup meant black and white students were both attending Cody by 1972. Although the specter of integration following the district court ruling in Milliken had sparked further white flight and cut the district’s white population by more than half, the Cody neighborhood’s concentration of white, municipal workers, who were required by law to live within the city limits, prevented significant demographic change.[v] As a Detroit Free Press story observed, the white city workers in the area were “trapped between their own unwillingness to live among blacks and the city’s requirements that they live in Detroit.”[vi] Therefore, even before court-ordered desegregation began, black and white students attended Cody together. And, the same resistance to desegregation manifested at the ballot box emerged in more violent forms in and around the school.
For instance, one day in 1972 after classes, a group of black students were watching the school’s ROTC practice when a white teacher told them to leave. After the students left and went across the street to play in an open field, a cadre of white students started throwing objects at them. In response to the white students’ assault, the school’s principal called the police to prevent the situation from escalating. As would become common practice, the police only escalated the situation. Armed with riot batons, officers entered the park and arrested eighteen students, both black and white. The police later reported that 500 students had been engaged in the fight and that black students initiated it, despite the principal’s insistence no more than twenty students had engaged in the fight and white students were the instigators.[vii]
Similar attacks continued over the next two years, making police a regular presence in students’ lives. For instance, in the spring of 1974, a teenager who did not attend Cody led a large group of white students to its campus to start a fight. The teen ran through the building shouting racial slurs to draw out the school’s black students. Though police, teachers, and school security guards prevented a fight initially, as the black students turned to go back inside, the teenager ran up and kicked a black student in the back. The group of white students outside began throwing bottles, sparking a massive fight. A day later, an estimated 600 black and white students began fighting in the school’s hallways following the theft of a varsity letterman’s jacket. Police arrested six students, both black and white, and the school closed down for the day. When it opened the next morning, it did so under a massive deployment of city police and board of education security force officers.[viii] In the aftermath of this fighting, Mayor Coleman Young promised a police force on the “troubled campus” for the rest of the school year.[ix]
It is important to note that although police officers were regularly called to neutralize violent manifestations of white resistance to desegregation in and around the school, they regularly escalated the situation. The expansion of a police force notorious for its racism and brutality into the city schools, while intended to combat white racism, instead proved debilitating for black students. By the time court ordered desegregation took place at Cody, police were a common fixture in the school, and arrests at and around the school had become routine.
Furthermore, the school’s responses to racial violence and changes in disciplinary policy following the early years of desegregation augmented the negative effects of expanded law enforcement on campus. Following a report of “anarchy” in the city’s high schools from the superintendent’s desegregation monitoring committee in 1975, Judge DeMaisco doubled down on disciplinary policy with the implementation of a twenty-two page uniform student code of conduct that expanded the variety of suspensionable offenses.[x] In practice, this expansion of disciplinary power took more punitive dimensions inside a school that actively resented the presence of its Black students.
During the 1978-79 school year, Cody suspended 715 of its 3,311 students, issuing 937 total suspensions. Although the school population during the 1980-1981 school year declined to 3,106 students, the number of students suspended increased to 1,064 and its total number of suspensions rose to 1,506.[xi] Yet, despite the committee’s reports of “anarchy” and the violent disturbances on Cody’s campus during the initial years of integration, the overwhelming majority of suspensions occurred for “general prohibited behavior,” such as insubordination, loitering, and the vague “disruptive or other misconduct.” In fact, in the 1980-81 school year, 87 percent of suspensions were for these behaviors. And, of the 606 students expelled from Cody between 1979 and 1981, 74 percent were removed for “general prohibited behavior” and truancy.[xii] The rise in suspensions and expulsions correlated with unprecedented levels of attrition. While 1,385 ninth grade students entered Cody’s halls in the 1977-78 school year, only 470 remained by their senior year.[xiii]
Although the uniform code of conduct had been implemented to combat the disproportionate deployment of discipline that often followed desegregation attempts, a study by the United States Commission on Civil Rights found that Detroit school officials disproportionately punished black students.[xiv] For that reason, it is not surprising that school disciplinary measures became more punitive as the percentage of black students at Cody increased from just over twenty percent in 1973 to 78 percent in 1980. As a result, Cody students attended a police patrolled school that suspended a third of its students and expelled almost one in ten.[xv] The disciplinary changes amidst massive resistance to desegregation created a punitive environment that limited the educational opportunity of black students and increased their contact with police.
Somehow, despite the constant presence of police and the indiscriminate use of disciplinary power at the school, many of Cody’s students continued to grow academically. In 1981, only 66.5 percent of Cody’s students passed Michigan’s state assessment, but, by 1985, almost 73 percent of students passed. However, the same teachers who doled out discipline so freely also devalued students’ coursework. Contrary to the gains measured on the state’s assessment, the average GPA at Cody High School in 1985 was only a 1.61.[xvi] A disciplinary system established during massive resistance to desegregation had created a statistical narrative that prevented teachers from seeing the academic achievement of their own students. Thus, the school continued to focus on punishing its students, rather than helping them realize their potential. The mass attrition of students eventually led the school’s label as a “dropout factory.”[xvii]
Between 1952 and 1982, Frank Cody High School transformed from a cutting-edge educational institution to one that systematically removed students from the classroom. The normalization of suspension and expulsion persisted for decades. In 2008, 75 percent of Cody’s students dropped out prior to graduation, sparking a small schools reform in the campus meant to curb dropout and suspension rates. As a result, Cody transitioned from one comprehensive high school with a massive student body to five different schools with small enrollments to personalize students’ educational experience. While this effort led to increased graduation rates, the Cody campus still suspends 31 percent of its students.[xviii]
It is important to remember Cody’s disciplinary practices have historical roots, and were powerfully shaped by white resistance to desegregation. Throughout Cody’s history, this resistance has played a crucial role in expanding and limiting students’ educational opportunities. As the district’s demographics changed, Cody’s white students and their families sought to maintain a segregated school in detrimental ways. Not only did white resistance to adequately fund Detroit’s schools in the 1960s have long lasting consequences, but so did the racist violence that met black students as they entered formerly segregated spaces. In turn, that violence heightened police presence at the city’s schools. Furthermore, the new code of conduct’s authorization of unlimited disciplinary power for even minor offenses proved destructive. The implementation of the code of conduct in a school filled with racial resentment expanded disciplinary power in profound ways that have lasted beyond Detroit’s battle for desegregation and into the present.
Matt Kautz is a doctoral student in History and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University. Prior to graduate school, Matt was a high school teacher in Detroit and Chicago. His current research focuses on the changes in urban school discipline during the era of desegregation and how this punitive turn shaped the school-to-prison pipeline.
Featured image (at top): Michigan State Historic Preservation Office, “Everett Cody High School,” Flickr, January 14, 2011.
[i] For more about the violent nature of resistance to integrated living see Thomas Sugrue’s Origins of the Urban Crisis. In 1965, 55 percent of the district’s students were black, but 99 percent of Cody’s students were white: Racial Census October, 1965, Box 6, Folder 2, The Detroit Public Schools Community Relations Division Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University.
[ii] Jeffrey Mirel, The Rise and Fall of an Urban School System: Detroit, 1907-81 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999), 266-268.
[iii] Mirel, 401-405.
[iv] Mirel, 343.
[v] Mirel, 387.
[vi] Jeff Counts and Marco Trbovich, “Cody Area Life: A Relic of 50s,” Detroit Free Press, Mar. 18, 1973.
[vii] Michael Graham and John Griffith, “Police Halt Cody Clash,” Detroit Free Press, Apr. 29, 1972.
[viii] Bill Michelmore, “Cody High Will Reopen Today,” Detroit Free Press, May 31, 1974; Billy Bowles, “Crisis Bares Cody’s Area Soul,” Detroit Free Press, June 3, 1974.
[ix] Peter Benjaminson, “Mayor Sounds Off About Cody Clash and Car Dispute,” Detroit Free Press, June 4, 1974.
[x] Detroit Public Schools, Uniform Code of Conduct, 1976, Box 59, Folder 24, Detroit Human Rights Commission, Walter P. Reuther Library, Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University. The code of conduct listed the offenses for which school officials could issue suspensions, including: insubordination; verbal abuse; loitering/trespassing; refusal to identify self; smoking in school or on school property; truancy; gambling; student demonstrations; and disruptive or other misconduct.
[xi] High School Report, Box 1, Folder 2, Wayne State University College of Education Dean’s Office: DPS Monitoring Commission on Desegregation, Walter P. Reuther Library, Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University.
[xii] High School Report.
[xiii] High School Report.
[xiv] United States Commission on Civil Rights, Desegregation of the Nation’s Schools, a Status Report (Washington: U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1979), 42-43.
[xv] High School Student Attrition, Box 1, Folder 2, Wayne State University College of Education Dean’s Office: DPS Monitoring Commission on Desegregation, Walter P. Reuther Library, Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University.
[xvi] Patricia Montemurri, “Detroit’s Student Average below C, Despite Progress,” Detroit Free Press, Nov. 18, 1985.
[xvii] “Graduate to Solutions,” Detroit Free Press, May 4, 2008.
[xviii] U.S. Department of Education. Office of Civil Rights. Discipline and Disability (Washington: Office of Civil Rights, 2015). https://ocrdata.ed.gov/
21 thoughts on “Cody High School: From Promise to Punishment”
Fine research! Congratulations!
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I am a former Cody High School Student and Class of 1988 Graduate. Thank You for writing this I would love to contact you regarding a project I am working on centered around my experience at Cody.
Hi, my name is Matt Kautz, and I wrote this piece. I’m happy to connect and help in any way I can with your project! Please feel free to contact me via email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
I went to Cody High School for half of the 77-78 school year. I started High Scool in Fort Worth , Texas at Wester Hills where tension for the most part was against the “goat roppers and the freaks”. The minority blacks who attended were really not a problem per say, but everyone there had their “clicks”. So there were a few fights in school among different groups. In 1976 I moved up to the suburb of Romulus, Michigan in the Detroit Metro area to live with my dad ( divorce can cause alot of problems in life). Romulus High School had a 65% white 35% black make up (give or take) at the time. Racial tension there was slightly higher but for the most part, most everyone stayed cool. You will always have certain groups no matter what school you attend that will start problems at different times. My dad transfered from one General Motors plant in Romulus to the one off of Telegraph Rd. in Redford. That is the year that I went to Cody. Cody High School was as you said, most teachers just pushed you thru the system and if you caused “any” problems they “corrected” you. The tension between blacks and whites in the school was the highest that I ever encountered. We had police officers standing around the bathrooms during class changes, and motorcycle cops driving around the school most of the days. Once, I was in Spanish class, the only white male student, and outside about 6 white kids, 3 boys and 3 girls walked onto the campus’s edge started yelling and about 8 black guys showed up and a fight ensued. Needless to say, the white girls were held at bay as the white guys had their lunch handed to them. Two motorcylce cops showed up and the kids all dispersed. I kept looking behind me to see if anyone in the classroom was about to swing at me. Luckily we all just laughed at the situation. I dropped out the second half of that year. My dad transferred back to Romulus and I finished school there. Yes, Cody High School had quite a few problems with teachers, parents, gangs and “clicks”. When I look back, even though Cody was not an inner city school in general, it had the major problems of inner city life caused by racial tension and the tax base. Thanks for this article, it brought back good and bad memories.
You left out the Mayor’s influence on desegregation. The Detroit school system was in finical trouble and implementing desegregation was expensive. The city had to purchase buses to transport kids 6 to 10 miles away from schools that they could walk to. I live in Detroit and went to Cody and graduated in 1977. It was a mess there with was reduced athletes programs and education hurt. Forced desegregation is bad idea. The police were not a problem. It was racism. In both directions. When desegregation started the property values dropped and the white people left. When I started high school at Cody it was about 20% black and when I graduated to was about 80% black. The neighborhoods went down and many houses were left empty. This drove the city to ruin. The city has never recovered. The neighborhoods were hurt the worst. If I did not leave Detroit I would have been Killed. I was beaten, shot at, robbed, this happened all the time. I never saw violence until desegregation. I am white.
We left Detroit the winter of 78, my junior year. I was beat up really bad and my parents literally packed up and got the hell out. My dad got a transfer up north so we were gone and never looked back. And yes I did attend Cody High also from 1976-1978
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I graduated 1970 we only had we had a few African Americans at the school none of them were troublemakers other than Melvin Jackson someone later lunch stool across his head though for running his big mouth making racial remarks in the lunchroom while Mr Knox was the lunchroom supervisor
Went to Cody 69-73..experienced race riots..got mugged…friend stabbed at Library..cousin shot at MacDonalds…The neighborhood is a ghetto now..We have been proven right..Desegregation is NOT good for everyone…especially us white democrats…Go back there see whats left of a hard working ethnic neighborhood..That’s the thanks we got for being fellow democrats..
I was at Cody in 1972 and I lived three blocks from Cody from 1954. This story is so far left and had to be written by someone that was just plan ignorant to how things really were up to the downfall of Cody and the surrounding neighborhood.
Yeah I too went to high school there from 1971 to 1973. I remember practically running back and forth to school so that I didn’t get beat up not making eye contact with anyone. The first part of each class was spent on the teachers disciplining the kids to get them to settle down before any teaching could take place. So glad that as an adult I moved to Colorado so my kids didn’t have to put up with that bull and actally got an education.
I am a alum class of 81, my day first day if school sept 1977 was when mandatory buying started i was. Not busted I lived in the school zone, I remember picket signs ,screaming yelling white parents didn’t want us there,our great mayor Coleman young ,shut it down ,implementing heavy fine for picketers,pickerel, the end if 4 years we made friends and learn to co exist, im still in shock when the white said their parents said we had tails and ate with our feet smdh ,when they went home asking questions and realizing non of that was true parents started taking their kids out school
Wow, I went to Cody class of 2001. It seems like have racial tension and problems kept a strain on the school from then until now. Cody and the Detroit Public School System never did rebound from white Americans going against integrated schooling. They pulled their money and children from the schools and it had a lasting affect. It is extremely sad to know that my education in the 2000s was effected by things that happen in the 1950s. However, this was a great read.
I lived in Warrendale in the 1980s. I went to Mcoll elementary then to Lessenger, I can tell you it was a great neighborhood untill it changed demographically, by the time I entered jr high I was chased, assaulted and called racial epithets by the black kids who were now 45% of the school population. This only worstened over time, crime went up and ppl moved. As adult I seen the same trend in Redford, just like Warrendale, nice, safe quiet until they opened open the school district to Detroit, worst mistake EVER! Now they are in the same boat, closed down schools, declining neighborhoods etc…What this BS story left out was most of the Detroit School Districts black kids lived in subsidized houses, the white neighborhoods had a tax base to support the schools in their area, and didnt want blacks coming in and destroying them like they did in their own neighborhoods, call it racist, push it on them, leave the area in shambles, move on to another city, neighborhood etc and repeat, we will we ever learn?
I graduated from Cody in 1981 and never had a problem – I did my homework in class and had Mr. Harris for band in which I put my classes around – Marching, symphony, concert and jazz band – I loved school. I took the bus from Grand River and Schoolcraft – but 1/2 the time I walked because it was faster and I saved my bus money – I don’t remember the lunch room because I when to Mr. K chicken near Piedmont and ordered fried mushrooms. I did not know all the situations you wrote about in the article. I think some kids did come from the subsidized housing but I knew the kids that took the city bus to school. I was shocked when I came home and saw the building (torned down??) – I just remembered I had a friend come to my house to practice and the next day her father took her out of the school (ps I am a Black female)
Pretty good article. I attended Cody 1974-76. I was was jumped and beaten senseless on the side of the school as we were passing Door 7. Those who went there know that is the lunchroom door. I was told the last thing that hit me was a bottle breaking on my head. The school was closed the next day I believe. I recall a pretty nice guy went out to the front of the school peacefully and was taken away in an ambulance. Tensions were high. Most everyone I know carried a weapon or makeshift weapon of some sort. I remember after I came to in the Principal’s office a classmate escorted me to the city bus on Southfield service drive with his arm on my shoulder through an angry crowd shouting racial epithets at me and derogatory statements to him. Nice guy, I wish I could recall his name to thank him again
Interesting historical piece. The scope of such an article begs a more thorough examination of national, state, and local policy leading to many of these implications centralized to Cody HS staff and supports. We all know that many positive experiences have occurred in Cody HS. Would love to see some comments to balance the narrative implied by this piece.
“In 2008, 75 percent of Cody’s students dropped out prior to graduation, sparking a small schools reform in the campus meant to curb dropout and suspension rates.”
I attended Cody during the late 1970’s One major point that has been missed by the writer of this blog is that the consequences from everyone’s actions effected EVERYONE. The proposed bussing plan was forced on the students, parents, and teachers during the middle of the spring 1977 school term. All students in the region were being affected. Not just the students attending classes at Cody, but also students that attended Mackenzie, Redford, Henry Ford, Osborn, and Denby High Schools. Everyone would have suffered as a result of the insensitivity, and brutalness of the situation.
I graduated Cody 1963, my wife 1964. The backstory of white priviledge wasn’t on our minds – just going to classes and having fun. Over 6,000 kids attended ; all white until 1961 (2 blacks), 1963 (5). My wife and I visited the school ~1983 and talked to 3 teachers we knew who were still there. One was a flat out racist noting all the N** at the school. I never liked him as my teacher and he proved why. Yes the school had changed dramatically with my wife’s counselor’s office now a police substation. The auditorium was shut down – almost as as I left it 20 years earlier. We still see our old friends at the annual Cody picnic and it’s sad most have left it in their rear view mirror. I wish the area and it’s students the best of luck. The school was there for me and my friends ( perhaps as the article states, unfairly) and the decline of Detroit due to manufacturing and white workforce fleeing barely left anything remaining.
I very much appreciated the careful research. I was a student at Cody during these tumultuous times. I appreciate learning about the larger context. As a white student, I don’t believe I fully understood the larger picture. Thanks!