Category Archives: UHA Business

Rethinking #UHA18 and the Academic Conference

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“The play’s the thing wherein I will catch the conscience of the king”
– Hamlet in Hamlet

I have to confess, I kind of dug William Shakespeare in high school and college (Measure Per Measure anyone?). Admittedly, it might have been because he was great at rhyming couplets and the like. Still, Hamlet’s decision to stage a performance simply to gauge the King’s alleged involvement with the poisoning of his late father always seemed like an incisive move by the Danish Prince, or a sign of his increasingly tenuous grip on reality. I suppose Hamlet’s motivation remains colored by whatever baggage the reader brings to the table.

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Of course, the UHA, AHA, SACRPH and others don’t conduct conferences as a means to root out nefarious crimes or as means to determine the motivations of its participants, be they speakers or audience members. However, in the glowing radiance of #SACRPH17, which by all accounts appeared to be a great success, questions regarding the efficacy, organization, and goals of academic gatherings remain well-traveled topics of discussion; such questions persist as points of debate and worth consideration as we draw attention to the CFP for #UHA18 in Columbia, SC and consider its own meaning for conference goers and the larger field of urban history.

With this in mind, we would like to draw your attention to a recent comment submitted to the blog by Jim Wunsch of Empire State College (SUNY). Professor Wunsch raises some great questions and points of debate regarding how we organize, conduct, and process conferences, including: accepting fewer papers for presentation; rethinking how historians present research (and the context in which they are presented); and posting papers earlier to encourage greater engagement and debate. We’d love for UHA members to chime in with their thoughts on Wunsch’s comments (at the risk of redundancy, in the comments section itself) but also the larger topic more generally. After all, the conference might not capture the field’s conscience but it does embody its direction and thrust.

With SACRPH in Cleveland and the SSHA in Montreal concluded and with planning for UHA’s Columbia, SC conference under way, it might be appropriate to consider for a moment how conferences might be improved.

Although expensive, they continue to be reasonably well attended because making a conference presentation remains for many academics a still useful way to demonstrate your academic interest and activity to those making promotion and tenure decisions. The problem is that since the success or failure of a conference is largely determined by how many attend, all too many papers of questionable value are accepted. And with so many panels scheduled during any given time slot, attendance can be disappointing. Then too by clinging to the ancient convention of reading papers out loud, sessions often prove tedious beyond words.

A modest reform would give priority to papers posted in advance. The presentation would entail explaining the basic ideas and argument and how they might fit into the larger historical framework; you know what you are supposed to do in a decent class.

This blog could play an important role in sustaining and strengthening conferences not only by celebrating them as joyful convocations, but also by singling out a few worthy and perhaps exciting papers and exchanges in various sessions.

Jim Wunsch

Empire State College (SUNY)

 

Planning Ahead for UHA 2018

We at The Metropole are still mourning the end of this last month’s excellent SACRPH conference, and so have eagerly begun to look ahead towards next year’s UHA Conference in Columbia, South Carolina. Jessica Elfenbein and Robin Waites of the Local Arrangements Committee and LaDale Winling and Elaine Lewinnik of the Program Committee assure us that we are not being premature in our enthusiasm–the deadline to submit paper proposals will be upon us sooner than we think! Check out the CFP below and leave a comment if you’re looking for urbanists to join a panel.

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The Ninth Biennial Conference of the Urban History Association

“Cities at the Crossroads”

Columbia, SC
October 18-21, 2018 

http://www.urbanhistory.org/Columbia2018

The Urban History Association invites submissions for sessions and papers on all aspects of urban, suburban, and metropolitan history. We welcome proposals for panels, roundtable discussions, and individual papers.

The conference theme, “Cities at the Crossroads,” reflects the growing interdisciplinarity of the field of urban history, the role of cities as meeting places, and the contemporary challenges of urban political isolation and tension over issues such as climate change, immigration, segregation, and inequality.

We encourage submissions that explore the diversity of the study of cities, including contributions from other disciplines and from historians who interpret notions of “urban” broadly and synthetically, whether politically, geographically, socially, or culturally. The program committee welcomes proposals for innovative workshops or non-traditional sessions. Successful panel and paper proposals need not adhere strictly to the conference theme, and the program committee will pay special attention to panels marking the anniversaries of events in or profoundly affecting cities, such as the Kerner Commission Report, the Fair Housing Act, or the 1968 Paris uprising.

Each proposal should have the following format:

Individual paper submissions should include an abstract up to 150 words with up to four keywords, along with a one-page CV, including address and email. These should be submitted as a single PDF file.

Panel submissions should include a cover page indicating the lead contact, with telephone and email, and the names of the session Chair and Commentator; a one-paragraph overview of the session’s themes and significance, plus a description of the format (eg panel, roundtable, workshop); a 100-word abstract for each proposed paper; and a one-page CV for each participant, including address and e-mail, all submitted as a combined, single PDF file.

The submission deadline is February 15, 2018. The program committee also plans for a graduate student workshop and a poster session, which will have a separate proposal deadline of May 1, 2018, with details forthcoming.

Please direct inquiries to Program Committee co-chairs LaDale Winling at Virginia Tech and Elaine Lewinnek at California State University-Fullerton (Columbia2018UHA@gmail.com). 

Announcing our Judges!

The Metropole is holding a blog contest for the UHA’s graduate student members to provide an opportunity for emerging scholars to gain experience working through the editorial process. We are excited to announce the panel of expert judges who will choose our winner, who will recieve a $100 prize and a certificate of recognition:

Judge 1: Pulitzer Prize Winner and UHA President-Elect Heather Ann Thompson

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Professor Thompson of the University of Michigan may be best known for the prize-winning book, Blood in the Water: The Attica Prison Uprising of 1971 and its Legacy, but she has also written extensively for publications as numerous and esteemed as The New York Times, Newsweek, Time, The Washington Post, Jacobin, The Atlantic, Salon, Dissent, NBC, New Labor Forum, The Daily Beast, and The Huffington Post. Thompson is also a prolific #twitterstorian, and regularly comments and retweets on issues of mass incarceration.

Judge 2: Bancroft Prize Winner and Former UHA President, THE Tom Sugrue

d45d47_f0bf0538959943a59b8d529f665e5c44~mv2_d_3441_3147_s_4_2You would be mistaken to remember Professor Sugrue of New York University for only his canonical book The Origins of the Urban Crisis, as Sugrue has also written and co-authored works on the Civil Rights movement in northern cities, on what the election of President Barack Obama signals about the history of race in the U.S., and on Americans’ enduring but fraught commitment to democracy. When not working on these longer projects, Sugrue has blogged for Talking Points Memo and published in London Review of Books, The Nation, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic, Dissent, Boston Globe, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, The Hollywood ReporterDetroit Free Press, and Philadelphia Inquirer. He can be found on Twitter fighting the good fight against the forces of ignorance that seem to be in global ascendance.

Judge 3: Elder Statesman of Urban Geography and Current UHA President Richard Harris

HarrisThe list of works published by Professor Harris of McMaster University stretches to 21 pages, and does not include the elegant addresses he has written of late for the UHA newsletter. In addition to his two most recent books–Creeping Conformity: How Canada became Suburban and Building a Market: The Rise of the Home Improvement Industry, 1914-1960–Harris has contributed to Canada’s National Post and is regularly sought out for interviews in publications ranging from the CBC to The Globe and Mail. We are still working to convince him to join Twitter, where we think he would have much to contribute.

We hope grad students will take advantage of this great opportunity to collaborate with an ace team of editors and have their work read by three of urban history’s luminary scholars. Make sure to get in submissions by 11:59 PM on November 26 in order to be considered for the prize.

Getting Pumped for SACRPH!

Ryan and I put out a call on Twitter asking what people were looking forward to at the upcoming SACRPH conference in Cleveland, and the response was crickets. I’m concerned that urbanists are insufficiently excited for what will most certainly be a great weekend! So here are the five things I’m most looking forward to…

5. Revisiting a Favorite City

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Betraying my adopted home of Pittsburgh, I will confess: I love Cleveland. I can’t really explain why, except to say that I’m easily bewitched by bookstores and believe in omens.

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Loganberry Books, Larchmere
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A Real Intersection, Tremont

4. Paper Sessions

It appears that I will have to roll a die to determine which panels to attend–there are so many good ones. I do know that I will be sitting in on the presentation of one of my best friends from undergrad, who I didn’t know was attending SACRPH until I found her name in the conference program!

3. The Conference Reception at the Cleveland Public Library on Friday Evening

I’ve never been to a library I didn’t love, and I can’t wait to drink a few glasses of wine and shmooze with my fellow urbanists while surrounded by books. Take note, graduate students–afterwards there will be a reception for the field’s most junior scholars at Hodge’s.

2. “From Surrogate Suburbs to Shaker Heights” Tour

Between recently reading Celeste Ng’s Little Fires Everywhere and Nichole Nelson’s fabulous post on the neighborhood, I’ve become obsessed with Shaker Heights. I can’t wait to explore the area and learn more about black suburbanization in Cleveland.

1. Meeting You!

Please come up and introduce yourself to me at SACRPH! Whether you’ve been a Member of the Week or a quietly lurking reader of The Metropole, I want to hear from you. This platform exists to bring together UHA members who might otherwise never meet, converse, share, influence, or inspire one another! As co-editors of the blog, Ryan and I do not only read and comment on writing–we also serve as a node, a point of connection within the larger network of our Association. So if you see me around, I would love to hear more about what you’re working on and what makes you passionate about urban history.

See you in Cleveland!

~Avigail

UHA Award Tour 2017

Late in 2016, the seminal hip-hop collective A Tribe Called Quest (ATCQ) was still reeling from the death of founding member Phife Dawg when the group released its final album, We Got it from Here Thank You for Your Service. Though completed well before the election that year, one could not help but listen to group’s final opus, which dropped after November 3,  without thinking about the current straights of Trumpian America: a nation awash in racial mistrust and populist demagoguery. “There ain’t no space program for” black people, Q-Tip raps in the chorus on the opening track, “you stuck here.” On the second track, “We the People“, A Tribe Called Quest didn’t back down, sarcastically telling listeners, “All you black folks, you must go / All you Mexicans, You must go / All you poor people, you must go / Muslims and gays, boy, we hate your ways / All you bad folks, you must go.”

In our current environment, everything feels relevant and political. For many Americans, particularly historians, the past eighteen months have only confirmed the belief that the nation needs to better grasp its past. The Washington Post‘s “Retropolis” and “Made by History” columns, the latter of which has featured more than a few UHA members, attest to this broad yearning for, dare we say, historical facts. So it follows that the UHA would like to draw your attention to some of the best work in urban history published this past year. To borrow from an ATCQ classic, “We on award tour with Muhammad my man/Going each and every place with a mic in their hand.” Get on the tour bus with The Metropole and be sure to get your mics out because everyone needs to hear the history therein; after all, as ACTQ comrades De La Soul once noted, “Stakes is high“.

UHA Kenneth Jackson Award for Best Book (North American), 2016

Winner

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Tyina L. Steptoe, Houston Bound: Culture and Color in a Jim Crow City (University of California Press, 2016).

At first glance, Tyina L. Steptoe’s book, Houston Bound, is an unassuming book – ostensibly about one city and one moment at the turn of the century. Upon close reading, however, it becomes obvious the book is so much more: Steptoe offers richly hued depictions of everyday life for diverse communities of migrants, Creoles, Mexicans, African Americans, and more. She uncovers volatile processes of racial formation but always through the experiences of everyday folk living in specific places. And she brings together surprisingly eclectic topics into a riveting story of Houston spanning over a century: starting with a spatial history of slavery, Steptoe moves through Jim Crow urbanism, environmental changes and migrations, the evolution of racialized police practices, and mid- to late-twentieth century politics – all while emphasizing the music that gave voice to community and culture. The result is phenomenal: Houston Bound is at once intellectually rigorous and accessible, provocative and a pure pleasure to read.

Honorable Mention 

Rashauna Johnson, Slavery’s Metropolis: Unfree Labor in New Orleans during the Age of Revolutions (Cambridge University Press, 2016).

51U4-dfUrBL._SX327_BO1,204,203,200_Slave economies fueled urban growth and the evolution of most – perhaps all – American cities in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Rashauna Johnson’s book, Slavery’s Metropolis, carefully maps this history for New Orleans from 1791 to 1825, and in the process offers insights into the urban geographies of empire, race, and power. Johnson persuasively argues that enslaved peoples moved through transnational and global spaces while also being profoundly unfree. This “confined cosmopolitanism” is at the core of the book’s explanation of urban racial order, and it is a weighty contribution to our collective understanding of slavery and cities. Johnson’s impressive archival work and solid grounding in theory make this a masterful book on all counts.

 

UHA Award for Best Book (Non-North American), 2015-2016

Winner

Su Lin Lewis, Cities in Motion: Urban Life and Cosmopolitanism in Southeast Asia, 1920-1940 (Cambridge University Press, 2016).

4e39cabb-eb25-4e31-97d0-258b4c7816c6_1.83a417c5fe940740a2d2ad0226f6a486With Cities in Motion, Su Lin Lewis captures a transformative historical moment of international cosmopolitan culture through close examinations of Rangoon (Myanmar), Penang (Malaysia) and Bangkok (Thailand) in the 1920s and 1930s. The cosmopolitanism of the book’s subtitle is both European and a continuation of a millennium of exchange between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Lewis examines cosmopolitan cultural exchanges as vehicles for intricate and multifaceted negotiations of power within and between communities that are anything but insular or homogenous. In this, she builds upon and respectfully corrects the foundational work of J.S. Furnivall and Benedict Anderson, adding a richness to the struggles of class, gender and religion. She manages to better capture the complexity surrounding questions prematurely settled in histories driven by postcolonial and national framings. The sudden proliferation of print and other new media provides a thrilling set of important vehicles for examining negotiations of power between a Babel of linguistic communities. Throughout, some of the clearest evidence of modernity comes in the form of the new roles, public expressions, and vocal presence of women. Lewis is most impressive in her capacity to pursue the evidentiary trails within and between these three cities along the centrifugal trajectories that they shared with Singapore, Batavia (Indonesia), Manila (Philippines), British India, Shanghai, and beyond to Cairo, London, and Paris. Perhaps the most striking episode of the book takes place in adjacent neighborhoods of 1920s Paris, where the founding fathers of Republican China, Vietnam, Burma, and Thailand debated the futures of the region, even entertaining a pan-Southeast Asian state. Cities in Motion is an exemplary demonstration of how we might move toward more inclusive global histories while remaining grounded in local historical evidence.

 

Arnold Hirsch Award for Best Article in a Scholarly Journal, 2016

Winner

Kathryn A. Sloan, “Death and the City: Female Public Suicide and Meaningful Space in Modern Mexico City,Journal of Urban History 42.2 (March 2016): 396 – 418.

Kathryn Sloan deftly illuminates the relationship between urban space and public suicide in the rapidly urbanizing environment of 19th-century Mexico City. Her analysis of newspaper accounts reveals how spectacular narratives surrounding suicide enabled reporters to regale the public with “lessons on honor, proper education, the roots of insanity, and gender ideology” (412). Editors trafficked discourse that refracted bourgeois anxieties about urbanization to the benefit of the autocratic Porfirian government. Public suicides, especially when in the name of nationalist love, honor, or passion, visibly empowered victims who had been largely disenfranchised in life. The symbolic associations these narratives took in urban spaces helped encourage popular placemaking while Mexico City incurred significant migration from rural communities. This article reflects the power of mass media to formulate popular understandings of public space—even concerning the most tragic of personal events.

Honorable Mention 

Michael D. Pante, “The Politics of Flood Control and the Making of Metro Manila,” Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints 64.3-4 (September-December, 2016): 555-592. 

Michael D. Pante’s article on flood control in Manila provides a detailed account on how the modernization of water management infrastructure was wielded to further the authoritarian goals of the Philippine government. The continual inadequacy of water management infrastructure resulted in repeated flooding that most seriously impacted marginalized communities within metropolitan Manila. Furthermore, members of these communities were continually relocated to make way for new infrastructure to replace the previously inadequate installations. Pante clearly elucidates how flood policy has exacerbated spatial and social inequalities when exercised by authoritarian forces.

 

Michael Katz Award for Best Dissertation in Urban History, 2016

Winner

Josiah Rector, Accumulating Risk: Environmental Justice and the History of Capitalism in Detroit, 1880-2015, Ph.D. Dissertation, History, Wayne State University, 2016.

Accumulating Risk by Josiah Rector brings together environmental history, the history of capitalism, and the history of race, class, and gender inequalities to show how Detroit’s economic transformation has concentrated environmental risk in poor urban neighborhoods. Rector expertly investigates large structures like capitalism, deindustrialization, and neoliberalism while also focusing the lens on human actors like regulators, business leaders, public officials, workers, union leaders, and city residents. His extensive research blends materials from the national archives with local collections in Michigan, oral history interviews and government reports, to create a rich and compelling narrative.

While many urban histories of Detroit focus on the post war period, this dissertation extends the traditional periodization by locating the origins of Detroit’s environmental crisis in the late nineteenth century. Nonetheless, the work is of current relevance, with immediate implications for our contemporary crises in the wake of the subprime mortgage meltdown, the lingering economic emergency in Detroit, and the poisoned water in Detroit and Flint. Rector doesn’t shy away from weighing in, using historical perspective, on current proposals for how to solve these crises in Detroit. This dissertation shows the importance of historical research and historical imagination when trying to understand our current economic and environmental problems.

Honorable Mention 

Theresa McCulla, Consumable City: Race, Ethnicity, and Food in Modern New Orleans, Ph.D. Dissertation, American Studies, Harvard University, 2016.

Consumable City by Theresa McCulla offers a refreshing approach to the hybrid racial culture of New Orleans, examining the experience of race and ethnicity through food. Tracing a long history from the nineteenth century to the present day, the project explores the contested meaning of ‘creole,’ showing how African American workers were exploited to produce the celebrated food culture of New Orleans even as the tourism and food industries worked to exclude or deny their presence and their cultural knowledge. McCulla effectively deploys a mixed methodological approach, using a unique blend of sources such as cook books, souvenirs, and market stalls as embodiments of social structures. Her creative interpretive approach takes risks to speculate on the meaning of cultural phenomena around food and to understand the often unspoken and invisible assumptions of racial hierarchy.

Announcing “The Metropole Book Shelf”

One of the things that UHA members do is to read books, and another thing is to write them. We thought that, to complement the bibliographies that we publish in the newsletter, we would provide members with the opportunity to share information from, and about, their own recently-published books. By ‘recently-published’ we mean ‘within the past year, or appearing within the next three months’.

Part of the purpose is to give members the opportunity to spread the word about their book. If you insist, call it marketing. That is why it’s ‘members only’. But more importantly we see it as an opportunity to share ideas, and perhaps stimulate discussion. That’s why we publish, right?

It’s up to you whether you use this opportunity primarily in order to summarize the book in some detail, or whether you prefer to emphasize and briefly explore a major theme or argument from the work, presumably because you think it is important, neglected, and/or provocative. We assume that many of you will want to do a bit of both. Either way, we suggest that you follow these guidelines: 500-650 words; include a short title; immediately below the title, provide basic bibliographic information according to the following model format; and put your name and affiliation at the end. Reference to other works should be kept to a bare minimum – in most cases, one or two at most. By all means provide a link to a publisher’s (or other) website where additional information may be obtained.

Model for biblio format: Peregrine Scholar. 2017. The Meaning of Cities. Minot, ND: Obscure University Press, xi and 342 pp. ISBN Paper: 911911911911. $58. Cloth: 811811811811. Ebook: 711711711711.

To submit your work for The Metropole Book Shelf (MBS), please email it to uhacommunicationsteam@gmail.com. MBS posts will run within one month of submission.

 

Libertad for Scholars: The AHA Survey on Historical Databases and Resources

It goes without saying that in today’s world, many talented historians are underemployed, between jobs, working independently of universities, or working at smaller institutions incapable of paying for top level resources and databases required of scholarship.  Whether one has a PhD, an MA, a BA, or as Matt Damon in “Good Will Hunting” opined, a Harvard level education “for a dollar fifty in late charges at the public library,” historians come from all backgrounds and walks of life and deserve to have access to the tools necessary to really engage the subject. With that in mind, the American Historical Association is conducting a survey to gauge how broadly accessible such resources are for scholars, particularly those at smaller, financially strapped schools, and independent and unaffiliated historians. More details are provided below, but take a few moments to fill out the survey and perhaps help broaden access to resources for all your fellow historians.
Survey text:

The AHA is investigating access to research databases and other resources used by historians. Independent and unaffiliated scholars, as well as historians at smaller institutions often do not have access to subscription materials necessary for their work. We would like you to answer a few questions that will help us determine what we can do to help scholars with this problem. We are looking for responses from anyone who considers themselves a historian, regardless of AHA membership status, so please pass this survey on to your colleagues. Your responses will be extremely helpful to the AHA’s efforts to promote historical education and research, and we thank you for taking the time to help us gather this important information.

This survey is brief and should take no more than 5-10 minutes to complete. Please respond by October 4, 2017 and do not hesitate to contact zjackson@historians.org if you have any further questions or comments.

Announcing The Metropole/Urban History Association Graduate Student Blogging Contest!

Blogging is an increasingly necessary skillset for scholars. Blog posts are a useful format for sharing knowledge with a wide audience, from the general public to researchers within the field. Scholars are now placing greater emphasis on publication beyond academic journals and monographs—the Washington Post’s new “Made by History” vertical is a prime example—as a way to teach beyond the classroom, market their scholarship, and promote the enduring value of the humanities.

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To promote blogging amongst graduate students and provide an opportunity for emerging scholars to gain experience working through the editorial process, The Metropole is holding a blog contest for the UHA’s graduate student members!

The contest theme is “A New Season.” Posts should take the form of essays that focus on historical narratives or events that signify transformation, evolution, or rupture.

All submissions that meet the guidelines outlined below will be accepted. The Metropole’s editors will work with contest contributors to refine their submissions and prepare them for publication.

A panel of senior scholars will serve as contest judges. Judges will be announced in November on The Metropole.

In addition to getting great practice writing for the web and experience working with editors, winners will receive a certificate and a small prize!

The contest will open on October 1 and will close on November 26. Entries must be submitted to uhacommunicationsteam@gmail.com. Posts will run on the blog in November and December, and we will announce the winners in January.  Finalists will have their papers reviewed by award winning historians Heather Ann Thompson, Tom Sugrue, and Richard Harris. The winning blog post will receive $100.

Contest Guidelines

  1. Contest entrants must be enrolled in a graduate program.
  2. Contest entrants must be members of the UHA. A one-year membership for graduate students costs only $25 and includes free online access to the Journal of Urban History.
  3. Contest submissions must be original posts not published elsewhere on the web.
  4. Contest submissions must be in the form of an essay related to the theme, “A New Season.” Essays can be about current research, historiography, or traveling as a historian.
  5. Posts must be received by the editors (uhacommunicationsteam@gmail.com) by November 26 at 11:59 PM EST to be eligible for the contest.
  6. Posts should be at least 700 words, but not exceed 2000 words.
  7. Links or Chicago Style footnotes must be used to properly attribute others’ scholarship and reporting.

It’s hard to believe…

… but somehow, it’s already September! Where did the summer go?

Here at The Metropole, we spent August lining up some excellent content for the autumn. We’re excited to bring you Ho Chi Minh City as our new Metropolis of the Month, to be followed in October by Cleveland, the host city of this year’s SACRPH conference. Tomorrow we will resume our Member of the Week feature–a day late but definitely not a dollar short. On Thursday, stay tuned for our introduction to Ho Chi Minh City and a bibliography of essential readings on that city’s history. And on Friday, an ICYMI post that takes a long durée approach. We’ll catch you up on the history-related web content you missed while you were off doing research (or, even better, vacationing!) in August.

We’re looking forward to the new season here at The Metropole and hope you are also excited to keep reading up on the research, publications, and people that make the Urban History Association such a vital and dynamic organization.

As always, we’d love to collaborate with you! Send us pitches for individual posts or series, or get in touch if you have an exciting new project you want to share with UHA members. And we invite you to start discussions–in the comments section of posts, on Facebook, and on Twitter. The Metropole belongs to its readers, and is better for every contribution that you all make.

Best wishes for a productive, fulfilling autumn,

Avigail, Ryan, and Hope

UHA Statement in Support of Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor

The Urban History Association strongly condemns the ugly harassment that has been directed against Princeton University professor Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor. We stand with Dr. Taylor, and most ardently support her right to speak uncensored and without threats or intimidation. An attack on any one member of our organization in this manner is a threat to all of us, and the UHA calls on other scholarly organizations also to condemn the vile behavior that has been directed at Dr. Taylor, as well as to stand with all scholars who find themselves similarly under assault for the ideas they hold or scholarship they produce.